Hughes/McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Co. model MD500MG 'Defender'
Type: Turbine powered Light Attack Helicopter
Similar aircraft: MBB BO-105 CB, Alouette II
Rotor system: Five-blade fully articulated main rotor, with blades attached to laminated strap retention system by means of quick disconnect pins for folding. Each blade consists of an extruded aluminum spar hot-bonded to one-piece wraparound aluminum skin. Trim tab outboard on each blade. Main rotor blades can be folded. Two-blade tail rotor, each blade comprising a swaged steel tube spar and metal skin covering. Four-blade 'quiet' tail rotor, and main rotor brake optional.
Rotor drive: Three sets of bevel gears, three driveshafts and one overrunning clutch. Main rotor/engine rpm ratio 1:12.594. Tail rotor/engine rpm ratio 1:1.956.
Fuselage: The fuselage is teardrop-shaped and features a round, glassed-in cockpit and landing skids. Aluminum semi-monocoque structure of pod and boom type. Clamshell doors at rear of pod give access to engine and accessories.
Tail unit: T tail with horizontal stabilizer at tip of narrow chord sweptback fin; small auxiliary fin at tip of tailplane on each side; narrow chord sweptback ventral fin with integral tailskid to protect tail rotor in tail-down attitude near ground.
Landing gear: Tubular skids carried on McDonnell Douglas oleo-pneumatic shock absorbers. Utility floats, snow skis and emergency inflatable floats optional.
Accommodation: Forward bench seat for pilot and two passengers, with two or four passengers or two litter patients and one medical attendant, in rear portion of cabin. Low-back front seats and individual rear seats, with fabric or leather upholstery optional. Baggage space, capacity 0.31 m³ (11 ft³), under and behind rear seat in five-seat form. Clear space for 1.19 m³ (42 ft³) of cargo or baggage with only three front seats in place. Two doors on each side. Interior soundproofing optional.
Powerplant: One 420 shp (313 kW) Allison 250-C20B turboshaft, which is derated to 375 shp (280 kW) for T-O and has a max continuous rating of 350 shp (261 kW). Two interconnected bladder fuel tanks with combined useable capacity of 240 liters (63.4 US gallons; 52.8 Imp gallons). Self-sealing fuel tank optional. Refueling point on starboard side of fuselage. Auxiliary fuel system, with 79.5 liters (21 US gallons; 17.5 Imp gallons) internal tank, available optionally. Oil capacity 5.7 liters (1.5 US gallons; 1.2 Imp gallons).
Systems: Electrical system includes a 150A engine driven generator and nickel-cadmium battery.
Avionics and equipment: Standard equipment includes outside air temperature gauge, 8-day clock, engine hour-meter, five sets inertia reel shoulder harness, cargo tiedown fittings, fire extinguisher, first aid kit, passenger steps, ground handling wheels, external power socket, landing light, skid-tip position light, anti-collision strobe lights, navigation lights, cockpit utility lights, aft cabin light and instrument lights. Optional equipment includes shatterproof glass, heating/demisting system, radios, intercom, attitude and directional gyros, rate of climb indicator, nylon mesh seats, dual controls, cargo hook, cargo racks, under fuselage cargo pods, heated pitot tube, extended landing gear, blade storage rack, litter kit, emergency inflatable floats and inflated utility floats. FAA supplemental certification has been received for installing a 30 million candlepower Spectrolab SX-16 Nightsun searchlight. Standard avionics includes AN/ARC-164 UHF/AM, AN/ARC-115 UHF/AM, AN/ARC-114 VHF/FM, ARN-89 ADF, APX-72 IFF transponder, AN/ASN-43 directional gyro, ID-1351 heading and bearing indicator and C-6533/ARC intercom. Optional avionics include dual King KY 195 com, KX 175 nav/com, KR 85 ADF, and KT 76 transponder; dual Collins VHF0251 com, VHF-251/351 nav/com, IND-350 nav indicator, ADF-650 ADF and TDR-950 transponder; headsets, microphones and PA system, GPS, ILS and full instrument weather conditions packages.
Main rotor diameter: 8.03 m (26' 4")
Tail rotor diameter: 1.40 m (4' 7")
Main rotor blade chord: 0.171 m (6' ¾")
Distance between rotor centers: 4.67 m (15' 4")
Length overall, rotors turning: 9.40 m (30' 10")
Length of fuselage: 7.29 m (23' 11")
Height to top of rotor head (standard skids): 2.62 m (8' 7")
Height over tail (endplate fins): 2.71 m (8' 10 ¾")
Width over skids: 1.96 m (6' 5")
Tailplane span: 1.65 m (5' 5")
Tailskid ground clearance: 0.41 m (1' 4")
Skid track (standard): 1.96 m (6' 5")
Cabin doors, height: 1.13 m (3' 8 ½")
Cabin doors, width: 0.88 m (2' 10 ½")
Cabin doors, height to sill: 0.71 m (2' 4")
Cabin, length: 2.44 m (8' 0")
Cabin, max width: 1.31 m (4' 3 ½")
Cabin, max height: 1.52 m (5' 0")
Main rotor blades: 0.690 m² (7.43 ft²)
Tail rotor blades: 0.095 m² (1.02 ft²)
Main rotor disc: 50.89 m² (547.81 ft²)
Tail rotor disc: 1.53 m² (16.50 ft²)
Fin: 0.56 m² (6.05 ft²)
Horizontal stabilizer: 0.76 m² (8.18 ft²)
Weights and loadings
Basic empty weight: 654 kg (1,441 lb)
Weight, empty, equipped:
Max normal T-O weight: 1,406 kg (3,100 lb)
Max overload T-O weight: 1,610 kg (3,550 lb)
Max gross weight, external load: 1,701 kg (3,750 lb)
Max normal disc loading: 26.76 kg/m² (5.48 lb/ft²)
Max normal power loading: 4.35 kg/kW (7.14 lb/shp)
Performance (at max normal T-O weight)
Never exceed speed at S/L: 282 kph (152 knts; 175 mph)
Max cruising speed at S/L: 221 kph (119 knts; 137 mph)
Max cruising speed at 1,525 m (5,000'): 226 kph (122 knts; 140 mph)
Max cruising speed from S/L to 1,525 m (5,000'): 250 kph (135 knts; 155 mph)
Econ cruising speed at S/L: 238 kph (129 knts; 148 mph)
Econ cruising speed at 1,525 m (5,000'): 220 kph (119 knts; 137 mph)
Max rate of climb at S/L up to ISA +20°C: 558 m/min (1,830 ft/min)
Vertical rate of climb at S/L, ISA: 606 m/min (1,990 ft/min)
Vertical rate of climb at S/L, ISA +20°C: 558 m/min (1,830 ft/min)
Service ceiling: over 4,880 m (16,000')
Hovering ceiling IGE, ISA: 5,060 m (16,600')
Hovering ceiling IGE, ISA +20°C: 4,270 m (14,000')
Hovering ceiling IGE, ISA 35°C: 2,680 m (8,800')
Hovering ceiling OGE, ISA: 4,300 m (14,100')
Hovering ceiling OGE, ISA +20°C: 3,475 m (11,400')
Hovering ceiling OGE, ISA 35°C: 2,135 m (7,000')
Range, 2 min warm-up, standard fuel, no reserves at S/L: 333 km (180 nm; 207 mi)
Range, 2 min warm-up, standard fuel, no reserves at 1,525 m (5,000'): 376 km (203 nm; 233 mi)
Endurance, 2 min warm-up, standard fuel, no reserves at S/L: 2 hrs 6 min
Endurance, 2 min warm-up, standard fuel, no reserves at 1,525 m (5,000'): 2 hrs 18 min
Weapon systems: Standard 14" NATO racks with two hardpoints are provided for external stores. Basic military versions able to carry a variety of alternative weapons, including fourteen 70 mm rockets and either a 7.62 mm minigun with 2,000 rds of ammunition; or a Mk. 19 or M-75 40 mm grenade launcher; or a 7.62 mm EX-34 chain gun with 2,000 rds of ammunition; or two TOW missile pods; or 2 Hellfire ATGM; or 2 Stinger AAM pods. Chaff and infra-red flares can be carried, with automatic chaff ejection on threat detection facility. Both cyclic sticks have triggers for gun or rocket firing.
AFP weapon systems: One M-3P 12.7 mm HMG Pod, 1,000 rpm, 250 rounds of ammunition and one M-260 7 x 70 mm 'Hydra' rocket launcher.
Program: Currently undergoing SLEP since 2006, involving the negotiated procurement of twenty refurbished/enhanced engine to improve the MG-520's mobility.
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Bell Helicopter Textron Inc. model 205, US Army designation UH-1H 'Iroquois/Huey'/ model 205A-1/ UH-1M/ model 212 US Army designation UH-1N 'Twin Huey'
Type: Single-rotor General Purpose Helicopter
Similar aircraft: Bell 204, Bell 214
Rotor system: Two-blade semi-rigid main rotor. Interchangeable blades, built up of extruded aluminum spars and laminates, now being replaced by new composite blades, with unidirectional glassfiber roving spar, afterbody of glassfiber skin over a Nomex honeycomb core, unidirectional glass fiber roving trailing edge, and a polyurethane leading-edge abrasion strip. A stainless steel sheath under this strip on the outboard portion of the blade reinforces the inertia weight attachment and enhances tree cutting capability. Stabilizing bar above and at right angles to main rotor blades. Underslung feathering axis head. Two-blade all metal tail rotor of honeycomb construction. Blades do not fold.
Rotor drive: Shaft drive to both main and tail rotors. Transmission rating 1,100 shp (820 kW). Main rotor rpm 294-324.
Fuselage: Conventional all-metal semi-monocoque structure.
Tail surface: Small synchronized elevator on rear fuselage is connected to the cyclic control to increase allowable CG travel.
Landing gear: Tubular skid type. Lock-on ground handling wheels and inflated nylon float bags available.
Accommodation: Pilot and eleven to fourteen troops, or six litters and a medical attendant; or 1,759 kg (3,880 lb) of freight. Crew doors open forward and are jettisonable. Two doors on each side of cargo compartments; front door is hinged to open forward and is removable, rear door slide aft. Forced air ventilation system.
Powerplant: One 1,400 shp (1,044 kW) Avco Lycoming T53-L-13 turboshaft, mounted aft of the transmission on top of the fuselage and enclosed in cowlings. Five interconnected rubber fuel cells, total capacity 844 liters (223 US gallons; 186 Imp gallons), of which 799 liters (211 US gallons; 176 Imp gallons) are useable. Overload fuel capacity of 1,935 liters (511 US gallons; 125 Imp gallons) internal auxiliary fuel tanks interconnected with the basic fuel system; Two 900 shp (671 kW) Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6T-3B Turbo Twin Pac (UH-1N)
Avionics and equipment: FM, UHF, VHF radio sets, IFF transponder, Gyromatic compass system, direction finder set, VOR receiver and intercom standard. Optional nav/cpm systems. Standard equipment includes bleed air heater and defroster, comprehensive range of engine and flight instruments, power plant fire detection system, 30V 300A DC starter/generator, navigation, landing and anti-collision lights, controllable searchlight, hydraulically boosted controls. Optional equipment includes external cargo hook, auxiliary fuel tanks, rescue hoist, 150,000 BTU muff heater. Uprated unit's optional equipment/upgrades includes AN/ALQ-144 infra-red jammer, AN/APN-209 radar altimeter, AN/APR-39 radar warning receiver, AN/ARC-164 UHF/AM radio, AN/ARN-124 DME, XM130 chaff/flare dispenser, NOE communications (FM/HF), communications security, infra-red suppressor (hot metal and plume), altimeter lighting (5V), crashworthy auxiliary fuel system, closed circuit refueling, fuel tank vent, improved main input driveshaft, main rotor mast plug, composite main rotor blades, improved stabilizer bar, tail rotor hub and servo cylinders, a split engine deck, improved oil filtration system, night vision compatible cockpit, built-in Vibrex connections, improved AN/ASN-43 gyro magnetic compass and Doppler navigation.
Main rotor diameter: 14.63 m (48' 0")
Tail rotor diameter: 2.59 m ( 8' 6")
Main rotor blade chord: 0.53 m (1' 9")
Tail rotor blade chord: 0.213 m (8.4")
Length, overall (main rotor fore and aft): 17.62 m (57' 9 5/8")
Length of fuselage: 12.7 m (41' 10 ¾")
Height, overall , tail rotor turning (excl fin tip antenna): 4.41 m (14' 5 ½")
Height to top of main rotor head: 3.60 m (11' 9 ¾")
Stabilizer span: 2.84 m (9' 4")
Width over skids: 2.91 m (9' 6 ½")
Cabin, max width: 2.34 m (7' 8")
Cabin, max height: 1.25 m (4' 1 ¼")
Cabin volume, excl flight deck: approx 6.23 m³ (220 ft³)
Main rotor disc: 168.11 m² (1,809.56 ft²)
Tail rotor disc: 5.27 m² (56.7 ft²)
Weights and loadings
Weight, empty, equipped: 2,363 kg (5,210 lb)
Basic operating weight (troop carrier mission): 2,520 kg (5,557 lb)
Mission weight: 4,100 kg (9,039 lb)
Max T-O and landing weight: 4,309 kg (9,500 lb)
Max zero-fuel weight: 3,660 kg (8,070 lb)
Fuel: 840 kg (1,850 lb)
Max disc loading: 25.6 kg/m² (5.35 lb/ft²)
Max power loading: 4.13 kg/kW (8.63 lb/shp)
Performance (at max T-O weight)
Never exceed speed: 204 kph (110 knts; 127 mph)
Max level and cruising speed: 204 kph (110 knts; 127 mph)
Econ cruising speed at 1,735 m (5,700'): 204 kph (110 knts; 127 mph)
Max rate of climb at S/L: 488 m/min (1,600 ft/min)
Service ceiling: 3,840 m (12,600')
Hovering ceiling IGE: 4,145 m (13,600')
Hovering ceiling OGE: 1,220 m (4,000')
Range with max fuel, no allowances, no reserves at S/L: 511 km (276 nm; 318 mi)
Weapon systems: Provisions for one 7.62 mm M-240 machine-gun, or one 7.62 mm GAU-17 machine gun; two 7 x 70 mm or 19 x 70 mm rocket launchers.
AFP weapon systems: Standard armed versions has an M-60 7.62 mm mounted on either M-23, M-74 or M-41 pintle mount, door machine-gun with 500 rds of ammunition. External mounting assembly allows the Huey to carry various configurations in four hardpoints. Can also carry the Gulok modular pod.
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Sikorsky S-76 Utility
Type: Twin-turbine General Purpose All-weather Helicopter
Similar aircraft: Sikorsky S-70
Rotor system: Four-blade main rotor, with Sikorsky SC-1095 blade section. Each blade consists of a hollow oval titanium spar, titanium and nickel leading-edge abrasion strips, and glassfiber composite outer covering over Nomex honeycomb core. Blades have swept tips of Kevlar (30° on leading-edges, 10° on trailing-edges). Fully articulated aluminum rotor head, with elastomeric bearings which need no lubrication. Hydraulic lead-lag dampers and bifilar vibration absorbers on rotor head. Cross-beam four-blade tail rotor of composite materials. Rotor brake optional.
Rotor drive: Conventional transmission system, with both turbines driving through freewheeling units to main gearbox. Intermediate and tail rotor gearboxes are oil lubricated. Max continuous rating of main transmission 1,300 shp (969 kW).
Fuselage: Composite structure, comprising glassfiber nose, light alloy honeycomb cabin, semi-monocoque light alloy tailcone and Kevlar doors and fairings.
Tail unit: Pylon structure, with tail rotor on port side. All moving tailplane, which serves also to protect passengers or ground crew from contact with tail rotor.
Landing gear: Hydraulically retractable tricycle type, with single wheel on each unit. Nosewheel retracts rearward, main units inward into rear fuselage; all three units are enclosed by wheel doors when retracted. Main wheel tire size 14.5 x 5.5-6, pressure 11.38 bars (165 psi); nosewheel tire size 13 5.00-5, pressure 9.31 bars (135 psi). Hydraulic brakes; hydraulic mainwheel parking brake. Non-retractable tricycle gear, with low pressure tires optional, to increase rough terrain ground clearance.
Accommodation: Pilot and co-pilot plus a maximum of twelve passengers. In this configuration passengers are seated on three four-abreast rows of seats, floor mounted at a pitch of 79 cm (31"). A number of executive layouts are available, including a four-passenger 'office in the sky' configuration. Executive versions have luxurious interior trim, full carpeting, special soundproofing, radio telephone, and coordinated furniture. Dual controls standard. Sliding doors on each side of the cabin. Baggage hold aft of cabin, with external access door on each side of the fuselage, cabin floor designed for cargo loadings of up to 976 kg/m² (200 lb/ft²). Cabin heated and ventilated Windscreen demisting and dual windscreen wipers. Windscreen heating optional. Optional cargo hook.
Powerplant: Two 650 shp (485 kW) Allison 250-C30S turboshafts, with maximum continuous rating of 557 shp (515 kW), mounted above the cabin aft of the main rotor shaft. Standard fuel system has a capacity of 1,064 liters (281 US gallons; 234 Imp gallons). Extended range of fuel tanks, capacity 401 liters (105 US gallons; 88 Imp gallons), optional. Optional crash resistant fuel tanks, auxiliary 416 liters (110 US gallons) tank for installation in the baggage compartment available.
Systems: Hydraulic pressure at 207 bars (3,000 psi) supplied by two pumps driven from main gearbox. Hydraulic systems max flow rate 15.9 liters/min (4.2 US gallons/min; 3.5 Imp gallons/min) Bootstrap reservoir. Pump head pressure 3.45 bars (50 psi). In VFR configuration, electrical system comprises two 200A DC starter/generators and a 24V 17Ah nickel-cadmium battery. 7.5kVA generator, and a 115V 600VA 400Hz static inverter for AC power. 34Ah battery optional. Engine fire detection and extinguishing system.
Avionics and equipment: Standard equipment includes provision for dual controls; cabin fire extinguishers; cockpit, cabin, instrument, navigation and anti-collision lights; landing light; external power socket; first aid kit; and utility soundproofing. Optional armored crew seats, removable troop seats, cargo hook, rescue hoist, engine air particle separators, air conditioning, emergency flotation gear, full IFR instrumentation, litter installation and Hamilton Standard AFCS available. Collins VHF-20 com transceiver and intercom system standard. Optional avionics available according to configuration, including VHF nav receivers, transponder, compass system, weather radar, flight director system, radar altimeter, ADF, DME, VLF, nav system and ELT and sonic transmitters.
Main rotor diameter: 13.41 m (44' 0")
Tail rotor diameter: 2.44 m (8' 0")
Main rotor blade chord: 0.39 m (1' 3 ½")
Tail rotor blade chord: 0.16 m (6 ½")
Length, overall rotors turning: 16.00 m (52' 6")
Length of fuselage: 13.22 m (43' 4 ½")
Fuselage max width: 2.13 m (7' 0")
Fuselage max depth: 1.83 m (6' 0")
Height, overall rotor turning: 4.52 m (14' 9 ¾")
Tailplane span: 3.15 m (10' 4")
Wheel track: 2.54 m (8' 4")
Wheel base: 5.00 m (16' 5")
Tail rotor ground clearance: 1.97 m (6' 5 ¾")
Cabin, length: 2.46 m (8' 1")
Cabin, max width: 1.93 m (6' 4")
Cabin, max height: 1.35 m (4' 5")
Floor area: 4.18 m² (45 ft²)
Cabin volume: 5.78 m³ (204 ft³)
Baggage compartment volume: 1.08 m³ (38 ft³)
Main rotor disc: 141.21 m² (1,520 ft²)
Tail rotor disc: 4.67 m² (50.27 ft²)
Tailplane: 2.00 m² (21.5 ft²)
Weights and loadings
Weight, empty, standard equipment: 2,540 kg (5,600 lb)
Max fuel weight, standard: 861 kg (1,898 lb)
Max fuel weight, auxiliary: 325 kg (716 lb)
Max payload: 2,132 kg (4,700 lb)
Max external load: 1,497 kg (3,300 lb)
Max T-O weight: 4,672 kg (10,300 lb)
Max disc loading: 33.07 kg/m² (6.77 lb/ft²)
Performance [A] at gross weight of 4,536 kg (10,000 lb); [B] at gross weight of 3,810 kg (8,400 lb)
Never exceed speed: 286 kph (155 knts; 178 mph)
Max cruising speed: [A] 269 kph (145 knts; 167 mph); [B] 286 kph (155 knts; 178 mph)
Cruising speed for max range: [A] 232 kph (144 mph; 125 knts)
Max rate of climb at S/L: 411 m/min (1,350 ft/min)
Service ceiling: [A] 4,575 m (15,000')
Hovering ceiling IGE: [A] 1,890 m (6,200'); [B] 3,415 m (11,200')
Hovering ceiling OGE:
Range with 12 passengers, standard fuel, 30 min reserves: 748 km (404 nm; 465 mi)
Range with 8 passengers, auxiliary fuel, and offshore equipment: 1,112 km (600 nm; 691 mi)
Weapon systems: 7.62 mm, 12.7 mm, or 20 mm guns; Stinger AAMs; Hellfire, TOW ATGMs; freefall rocket launchers.
AFP weapon systems: Standard mount includes one 7 x 70 mm rocket launcher and one FN Herstal 12.7 mm machine-gun pod. Additional M-60 7.62 mm mounted on either M-23, M-74 or M-41 pintle mount, door machine-gun with 500 rds of ammunition are sometimes mounted for additional fire.
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Agusta Westland/Wytwórnia Sprzetu Komunikacyjnego PZL-Swidnik S.A. W-3A Sokol (Falcon)
Type: Multi-role medium lift helicopter
Similar aircraft: Mil Mi-2
Design Features: Conventional utility helicopter of pod-and-boom layout with engines above cabin. Four-blade fully articulated main rotor and three-blade tail rotot; main rotor has pendular Salomon-type vibration absorber for smooth flight and low vibration levels. Transmission driven via main, intermediate and tail rotor gear boxes. Tailfin integral with tailboom; fixed incidence horizontal stabiliser, not interconnected with main rotor control system. Main rotor blades have NACA 23012M aerofoil section and (on Polish W-3M) manual folding. Rotor brake standard. Rotor rpm 268.5 (main) and 1,342 (tail); main otor blade tip speed 220.7 m/s (724 ft/s)
Flying controls: Three hydraulic boosters for longitudinal, lateral and collective pitch control of main rotor; one booster for tail rotor control. Constant-speed rpm control for continuous operation (manual rpm control also available). Two axis stability augmentation system with pitch and roll hold. Three- and four-axis AFCS available from late 1994
Structure: Rotor blades (main and tail) and single spar horizontal stabilser of laminated GFRP impregnated with epoxy resin; tail rotor driveshaft of duralumin tube with splined couplings; duraluminum fuselage; GFRP fin trailing-edge.
Landing gear: Non-retractable tricycle type, plus tailskid beneath tailboom. Twin-wheel castoring and self-centering nose unit; single wheel on each main unit. Oleo-pneumatic shock absorber in each unit. Mainwheel Stomil Poznan tires size 700x250; nosewheel tires size 400x140. Tire pressures 71 and 64 psi (4.90 and 4.40 bar) respectively. Pneumatic disc brakes on main wheels. Metal ski landing gear optional. Six inflatable flotation bags on Anakonda and W-3AM.
Accommodation: Pilot (port-side), and co-pilot or flight engineer, side by side on W-3 flight deck, on adjustable seats with safety belts. W-3A can be flown by single pilot in VFR, with extra passenger in co-pilot seat. Dual controls and dual flight instrumentation optional. Accomodation for 12 passengers in main cabin or up to eight survivors plus two-person rescue crew and doctor in Anakonda SAR version. Seats removable for carriage of internal cargo. Medevac version can carry four strecher cases and medical attendant (EMS vesrion, one strecher, three medical personnel and intensive care suite). Baggage space capacity 180 kg (397 lb), at rear of cabin. Doors with bulged window on each side of flight deck; large sliding door for passenger and/or cargo loading on port side at forward end of cabin; second sliding door at rear of cabin on starboard side. Optically flat windscreens, improving view and enabling wipers to swep a large area. Accomodation sound-proofed, heated (by engine bleed air) and ventilated.
Powerplant: Two WSK PZL-Rzeszow PZL-10W turboshafts, each with rating of 900 shp (671 kW) for T-O and emergency ratings of 1,000 shp (746 kW) and 1,150 shp (858 kW) for 30 and 2½ OEI respectively. Particle separators on engine intakes, and inlet de icing, standard. Power plant equipped with advanced electronic fuel control system for maintaining rotor speed at pilot-selected value amounting to ±5% of normal rpm, and also for torque sharing as well as for supervising engine limits during start-up and normal OEI operation. Engines and main rotor gearbox mounted on bed frame, eliminating drive misalignment due to deformations of fuselage. Transmission rating 1,800 shp (1,342 kW) maximum for T-O, 1,560 shp (1,163 kW) maximum and 1,150 shp (857 kW) OEI. Engine input rpm 23,615. Four bladder fuel tanks beneath cabin floor, with combined capacity ot 1,720 liters (454 US gal; 378 Imp gal). Auxilliary tank capacity 1,100 liters (291 US gal; 242 Imp gal), optional (not FAA approved). Oil capacity 14 liters (3.7 US gal; 3.1 Imp gal) per engine.
Systems: Two independent hydraulic systems, working pressure 1,300 psi (90 bar), for controlling main and ail rotors, unlocking collective pitch control lever, and feeding damper of directional steering system; automatic power changeover if one system fails. Flow rate 11 liters (2.9 US gal; 2.4 Imp gal)/min in each system. Vented gravity feeding system for actuationg hydraulic mainwheel brakes. Electrical system providing 2--/115 V three-phase AC power at 400 Hz and 28 V DC power. Electric anti-icing of all rotor blades. Fire detection/extinguishing system. Air conditioning and oxygen systems optional. Neutral gas system optional, for inhibiting fuel vapor explosion.
Avionics: Standard VFR and IFR nav/com avionics permit adverse weather operation by day or night. Bendix/King avionics standard; alternatives at customer's option.
Comms: Chrom (NATO 'Pinhead') IFF transponder in military versions.
Radar: Bendix/King RDS-82 weather radar in W-3A; 5A-813 radar in W-3RM.
Flight: Stability augmentation system standard. AP Decca navigator in W-3RM.
Mission: SPOR search and detection system in W-3RM.
Self-defense: Modified Syrena RWR in military versions initially; to be replaced by Thales EWR-99 (SPS-H in W-3RD).
Equipment: Cargo version equipped with 2,100 kg (4,630 lb) capacity external hook and 150 kg (331 lb) capacity rescue hoist. W-3RM has 272 kg (600 lb) capacity electric hoist; stretchers, two-person rescue basket, rescue belts, two six-person liferafts, rope ladder, portable oxygen equipment, electric blankets and vacuum flasks, various types of buoy (light, smoke and radio) and marker, binoculars, flare pistol and searchlights. Firefighting version: one 1,590 litre (420 US gal; 350 Imp gal) Bambi bucket' on cargo sling or 1,500 litre ( 396 US gal; 330 Imp gal) expandable underbelly tank.
Main rotor diameter: 15.70 m (51' 6")
Tail rotor diameter: 3.03 m (9' 11 ¼")
Main rotor blade chord: 0.44 m (1' 5 ¼")
Distance between rotor centres: 9.50 m (31' 2")
Overall, rotors turning: 18.79 m (61' 7 ¼")
Fuselage: 14.21 m (46' 7")
Fuselage max width: 1.75 m (5' 9")
Height: to of rotor head: 4.20 m (13' 9")
Overall, rotors turning: 5.135 m (16' 10")
Stabiliser span: 2.385 m (7' 10")
Wheel track: 3.15 m (10' 4")
Wheelbase: 3.55 m (11' 7")
Height (each): 1.18 m (3' 10")
Width, port: 0.94 m (3 1")
Width, starboard: 1.25 m (4' 1")
Height to sill: 0.86 m (2' 10')
Cabin: Length: 3.21 m (10 ft 6 in)
Max width: 1.55 m (5 ft 1 in)
Max height: 1.38 m (4 ft 6 in)
Floor area 4.80 m² (51.7 ft²)
Volume: 6.9 m³ (243 ft³)
Main rotor disc: 193.6 m² (2,083.8 ft²)
Tail rotor disc: 7.21 m² (77.6 ft²)
Main rotor blades (each): 2.90 m² (31.22 ft²)
Tail rotor blades (each): 0.28 m² (3.01 ft²)
Fin: 1.00 m² (10.76 ft²)
Elevator: 2.16 m² (23.25 ft²)
Weights and Loadings
Basic operating weight empty (multipurpose versions): 3,850 kg (8,488 lb)
Max baggage weight: 180 kg (397 lb)
Max payload, internal or external: 2,100 kg (4,630 lb)
Max fuel weight: 1,381 kg (3,045 lb)
Normal T-O weight: 6,100 kg (13,448 lb)
Max T-O weight: 6,400 kg (14,110 lb)
Max disc loading: 33.1 kg/m2 (6.78 lb/sq ft)
Transmission loading at max T-O weight and power: 4.77 kg/kW (7.84 lb/shp)
Performance (A: at normal T-O weight, B: at max T-O weight, ISA, except where indicated)
Never-exceed speed (Vne): A, B 260 kph (140 kt, 161 mph)
Max cruising speed: A 238 kph (129 kt ; 148 mph); B 235 kph (127 kt; 146 mph)
Econ cruising speed: A 225 kph (121 kt; 140 mph); B 222 kph (120 kt; 138 mph)
Max rate of climb at S/L: A 558 m/min (1,831 ft/min); B 510 m/min (1,673 ft/min)
Service ceiling: A 4,910 m (16,100 ft); B 4,520 m (14,820 ft)
Hovering ceiling IGE: A at ISA 3,020 m (9,900 ft); B at ISA 2,550 m (8,360 ft); A at ISA + 20C 2,150 m (7,050 ft); B at ISA + 20C 1,690 m (5,540 ft)
Hovering ceiling OGE: A at ISA 1,900 m (6,220 ft); B at ISA 660 m (2,160 ft); A at ISA + 20C 1,020 m (3,340 ft); B at ISA + 20C 400 m (1,310 ft)
Max range at econ cruising speed, no reserves: A (standard tanks) 745 km (402 nm; 463 miles); B (standard tanks) 734 km (396 nm; 456 miles); A (with ferry tank) 1,152 km (622 nm; 715 miles); B (with ferry tank) 1,244 km (671 nm; 773 miles)
Max endurance at 125 kph (67 kt; 78 mph), no reserves: A (standard tanks) 4 h 18 min; B (standard tanks) 4 h 12 min; A (with ferry tank) 6 h 42 min; B (with ferry tank) 6 h 24 min
Performance (W-3RM at typical mission T-O weight of 5,500 kg; 12,125 lb)
Never-exceed speed (Vne): 260 kph (140 kt; 161 mph)
Max cruising speed: 243 kph (131 kt; 151 mph)
Max rate of climb at S/L: 672 m/min (2,205 ft/min)
Service ceiling 5,830 m (19,120 ft)
Hovering ceiling, IGE: 4,000 m (13,120 ft)
Hovering ceiling, OGE: 2,970 m (9,740 ft)
Max range, no reserves 761 km (411 nm; 473 miles)
Max endurance, no reserves: 4 h 20 min
AFP weapon systems: 12.7 mm door HMGs
Program: First batch of four units delivered on February 2012, second batch of two units, delivered in November 2012. . Assigned to the 205th Tactical Helicopter Wing.
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Eurocopter/Messeschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm GmbH BO-105CB
Type: Five-seat light helicopter
Similar aircraft: OH-6 Cayuse, McDonnell Douglas 500MD, Alouette III, Mi-4 Hound
Rotor system: Four-blade main rotor, comprising rigid titanium head and GRP blades, with titanium anti-erosion strip forming leading-edge and vibration damper on each blade. MBB designed 'droop-snoot' blades of NACA 23012 asymmetrical section, having a specially designed trailing-edge giving improved control in pitching moment. Flexible tension/torsion blade retention, to take up centrifugal forces. Roller bearings for pitch change. Main rotor blade folding optional. Two-blade semi-rigid tail rotor; blades of GRP, with stainless steel anti-erosion strip on leading-edge. Main rotor rpm 424. Tail rotor rpm 2,220. Main and tail rotors electrically deiced.
Rotor drive: Main transmission utilizes two bevel gear input stages with freewheeling clutches and a spur collection gear stage. Planetary reduction gear; three auxiliary drives for accessories. Main transmission rated for twin-engine input of 345 shp (257 kW) per engine, or a single engine input of 380 shp (283 kW). Main rotor brake standard. Tail rotor gearbox on fin. Main rotor/engine rpm ratio 1:14.2. Tail rotor/engine rpm ratio 1:2.7.
Fuselage: Conventional light alloy semi-monocoque structure of pod and boom type. Glassfiber reinforced cowling over powerplant. Titanium sheet engine deck. Short, thick, oval-shaped, and rounded at nose and rear with a glassed-in cockpit and landing skids.
Tail unit: Horizontal stabilizer of conventional light alloy construction with endplate fins. The tail features a swept-back and tapered fin with small rectangular fins mounted at the tips of the rectangular flats and the rotor on the left.
Landing gear: Skid-type, with cross tubes designed for energy absorptions by plastic deformation in the event of a heavy landing. Inflatable emergency floats can be attached to skids.
Accommodation: Pilot and co-pilot or passenger on individually adjustable front seats with safety belts and automatic locking shoulder harnesses. Optional dual-control. Bench seats at rear for three persons, removable for cargo and stretcher carrying. Both cabin and cargo compartment have paneling, sound insulation and floor covering. Entire rear fuselage aft of seats and under powerplant available as freight and baggage space, with access through two clamshell doors at rear. Two standard stretchers can be accommodated side by side in ambulance role. One forward opening hinged and jettisonable door and one sliding door on each side of the cabin. Ram air and electrical ventilation system. Heating system optional.
Powerplant: Two 420 shp (313 kW) Allison 250-C20B turboshafts, each with a max continuous rating of 400 shp (298 kW). Bladder fuel tanks under cabin floor, capacity 580 liters (153.2 US gallons; 127.5 Imp gallons), of which 570 liters (150.6 US gallons; 125.3 Imp gallons) are useable. Fueling point on port side of cabin. Auxiliary tanks in freight compartment available optionally. Oil capacity: engine 12 liters (3.2 US gallons; 2.6 Imp gallons), gearbox 11.6 liters (3.96 US gallons; 2.55 Imp gallons).
Systems: Tandem fully redundant hydraulic system, pressure 103.5 bars (1,500 psi), for powered main rotor controls. System flow rate 6.2 liters/min (1.64 US gallons/min; 1.36 Imp gallons/min). Bootstrap/oil reservoir, pressurized at 1.7 bars (25 psi). Electrical system powered by two 150A 28V DC starter/generators and a 24V 25Ah nickel-cadmium battery; external power socket.
Avionics and equipment: Built for rough weather and has special equipment for the IFR and night flying which allows terrain hugging over the roughest ground and guarantees maneuverability even with negative load factors. Standard equipment includes basic flight instruments, engine instruments, heated pitot, tiedown rings in cargo compartment, cabin and cargo compartment dome lights, position lights and collision warning lights. A wide range of optional avionics and equipment is available, including stability augmentation system, Doppler navigation, search radar, dual controls, heating system, windscreen wiper, rescue winch, landing light, searchlight, externally mounted loudspeaker, fuel dump valve, external load hook, settling protectors, snow skids, infra-red signature suppressors, and main rotor blade folding. Most of the PNAG units are fitted with search radars, Jacob's ladders and have commando support capabilities.
Main rotor diameter: 9.84 m (32' 3 ½")
Tail rotor diameter: 1.90 m (6' 2 ¾")
Main rotor blade chord: 0.27 m (10' 3/8")
Tail rotor blade chord: 0.18 m (7")
Distance between rotor centers: 5.95 m (19' 6 ¼")
Length including main and tail rotors: 11.86 m (38' 11")
Length excluding main and tail rotors: 8.56 m (28' 1")
Length of fuselage pod: 4.30 m (14' 1")
Height to top of main rotor head: 3.0 m (9' 10")
Width over skids, unladen: 2.53 m (8' 3 ½")
Width over skids, laden: 2.58 m (8' 5 ½")
Rear loading doors, height: 0.64 m (2' 1")
Rear loading doors, width: 1.4 m (4' 7")
Cabin, including cargo compartment
Max width: 1.40 m (4' 7")
Max height: 1.25 m (4' 1")
Volume: 4.80 m³ (169 ft³)
Length: 1.85 m (6' 0 ¾")
Max width: 1.20 m (3' 11 ¼")
Max height: 0.57 m (1' 10 ½")
Floor area: 2.25 m² (24.2 ft²)
Volume: 1.30 m³ (45.9 ft³)
Main rotor disc: 76.05 m² (818.6 ft²)
Tail rotor disc: 2.835 m² (30.5 ft²)
Weights and loadings
Basic empty weight: 1,276 kg (2,813 lb)
Standard fuel, useable: 456 kg (1,005 lb)
Fuel, incl auxiliary tanks: 776 kg (1,710 lb)
Standard T-O weight: 2,400 kg (5,291 lb)
Max T-O weight: 2,500 kg (5,511 lb)
Max T-O weight, with external cargo: 2,600 kg (5,731 lb)
Max disc loading: 32.9 kg/m² (6.74 lb/ft²)
Performance [A] standard T-O weight; [B] at max T-O weight
Never exceed speed at S/L: [A] 270 kph (145 knts;167 mph); [B] 242 kph (131 knts; 150 mph)
Max cruising speed at S/L: 242 kph (131 knts; 150 mph)
Best range speed at S/L: 204 kph (110 knts; 127 mph)
Max rate of climb at S/L, max continuous power: [A] 480 m/min (1,575 ft/min); [B] 419 m/min (1,375 ft/min)
Vertical rate of climb at S/L, T-O power: [A] 183 m/min (600 ft/min); [B] 91 m/min (300 ft/min)
Max operating altitude: [A] 5,180 m (17,000'); [B] 3,050 m (10,000')
Service ceiling: 5,180 m (17,000')
Service ceiling, one engine out (30.5 m/min (100 ft/min) climb reserve, T-O power): [A] 890 m (2,920')
Hovering ceiling IGE, T-O power: [A] 2,560 m (8,400'); [B] 1,525 m (5,000')
Hovering ceiling OGE, T-O power: [A] 1,615 m (5,300'); [B] 457 m (1,500')
Range with standard fuel and max payload, no reserves, at S/L: [A] 575 km (310 nm; 357 mi) [B] 570 km (307 nm; 354 mi)
Range with standard fuel and max payload, no reserves, at 1,525 m (5,000'): [A] 657 km (355 nm; 408 mi); [B] 596 km (321 nm; 370 mi)
Ferry range with auxiliary tanks, no reserves, at S/L: [A] 1,000 km (540 nm; 621 mi); [B] 995 km (537 nm; 618 mi)
Ferry range with auxiliary tanks, no reserves, at 1,525 m (5,000'): [A] 1,112 km (600 nm; 691 mi); [B] 1,020 km (550 nm; 634 mi)
Endurance with standard fuel and max payload, no reserves, at S/L: [A] 3 hrs 30 min; [B] 3 hrs 24 min
Weapon systems: External stores are mounted on weapons racks on each side of the fuselage, with each rack having one hardpoint, and can easily be reconfigured for different armed duties, and particularly to support the following specific weapon systems: anti-tank missiles, rocket launchers, pod-mounted gun, gun turret, side-firing machine gun. Provisions for a variety of alternative military loads, including six Hot or eight TOW ATGM and associated stabilized sight; or a Saab/Emerson HeliTow installation; or two 7 x 70 mm rocket launchers; or two 12 x 68 mm SNEB rocket launchers; or two 28 x 50 mm SNIA rocket launchers; or two AS-12 ASM pods; or Stinger AAM pod. Qualifications of Lucas Aerospace 12.7 mm machine-gun turret system for use on B0-105 and NBO-105 was underway in 1987. Turret mounts an FN gun and is aimed by a Ferranti helmet sight.
AFP weapon systems: PN Air Group units are currently not equipped with any type of weapon systems.
Program: Acquired durng the first quarter of 1977 from the PADC.They were assigned with the 205th Airlift Wing and wre utilized for ground attack and CMO-SAR roles. All PAF BO-105Cs were transferred to the PN.
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Augusta Westland Sp.A AW 109E Power (USCG designation MH-68A "Stingray")
Type: Light utility helicopter
Similar aircraft: Eurocopter Dauphin, Eurocopter EC 135, Sikorsky S-76
Design Features: Fully articulated four-blade metal main rotor hub with tension/ torsion blade attachment and elastomeric bearings; delta-hinged two-blade stainless steel rotor; manual blade folding and rotor brake optional. Main blade section NACA 23011 with drooped leading-edge; thickness/ chord ratios 11.3% at root, 6% at tip. Tail rotor with Wortmann aerofoil and stainless steel skins; optional rotor brake. Compared with earlier models A 109K has lengthened cabin to hold two strechers fore and aft; modified fuel system; and smaller instrument panel.Flying Controls: Fully powered hydraulic; IFR system with autopilot available. A 109KM has three-axis stability augmentation/attitude hold system; dual redundant IFR system and four-axis AFCS with flight path computer optional.
Landing Gear: Tricycle-type, with oleo-pneumatic shock absorbers in each unit. Single mainwheels and self-centering nosewheel castoring at ±45°. Hydraulic retraction, nosewheel forward, mainwheels upward into fuselage. Hydraulic emergency extensionand locking. Magnaghi disc brakes on mainwheels . All tires are tubeless, of the same size (360x135-6 or 380x135-6 or 14.5x5.5-6, 12/14 ply tubeless) and pressure (85 psi; 5.90 bar). Tailskid over ventral fin. Emergency pop-out flotation gear and fixed snowskids optional.
Powerplant: Two Pratt & Whitney Canada PW206c engines, each rated at 640 shp (477 kW) for T-O (5 min), 567 shp (423 kW) for twin-engine operations, 732 shp for 2 ½ minutes' OEI contingency rating and 670 shp (500 kW) maximum continuous OEI; or two
Turbomecca Arrius 2K1, each rated at 670 shp (500 kW) for T-O, 570 shp (435 kW) for twin-engine operations. 750 shp (559 kW) for 2 ½ minutes' OEI contingency rating and 670 shp (500 kW) maximum continuous OEI; transmission rating 900 shp (671 kW) for T-O and maximum continuous for twin-engine operation 560 shp (418 kW) maximum continuous and 640 shp (477 kW) for 2 ½ minutes' OEI; Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC) system and six liquid crystal multifunction instrument displays for engine management. Standard fuel capacity (three cells) 605 liters (160 US gal; 133 Imp gal); optional capacity 710 liters (187 US gal; 156 Imp gal) with one extra cell or 870 liters (230 US gal; 191 Imp gal with two extra cells.
Systems: Military versions have electrical system supplied by two 160 A 28 V DC self-cooled starter/ generators and 27 Ah 28 V Ni/Cd battery. Optional AC electrical system comprises two 250 VA or two high-load 600 VA 115/26 V AC 400 Hz static inverters. Optional high-load AC system comprises one 6 kVA alternator and one standby 250 VA solid-state inverter. Dual independent hydraulic systems for flight controls, each capable of operating main actuators in the event of failure of the other system; utility hydraulic system with the normal and emergency accumulators for operation or rotor brake, wheel brakes and nosewheel centring.
Avionics: Rockwell Collins Pro Line II or Bendix/ King Silver Crown as core system. Military systems have ergonomic, NVG-compatible flight deck with provision for IFR intrumentation and role/ mission dedicated displays.
Comm: VHF/AM, VHFFM, UHF, HF, three-station intercom, IFF and ELT
Radar: Color weather radar optional.
Flight: ADF, VOR/ GS, ILS, DME, GPS nd VLF-Omega. Optional Rockwell Collins CMS80 cockpit management system with one or more centrally mounted CDUs and automatic target hand-off system compatibility.
Self Defense: Radar/ laser warning receivers and chaff/ flare/ smoke dispensers.
Equipment: Optional equipment for military use includes windscreen wipers, rear view mirror, bleed air heater, particle separator, engine fire extinguisher, oxygen system, environmental control unit, one- or two-stretcher installation, air ambulance kit, external loudspeaker system, high-intensity searchlight, cargo platform, external cargo hook with max capacity 1,000 kg (2,205 lb), rescue hoist max capacity 270 kg (595 lb), snow skis and emergency floats.
Main rotor diameter: 11.0 m (36' 1")
Tail rotor diameter: 2.0 m (6' 6¾")
Main rotor blade chord:
Tail rotor blade chord:
Distance between rotor centers:
Length overall, rotors turning: 13.04 m (42'9")
Length overall: 11.45 m (37.57')
Length of fuselage pod: 11.4 m (37' 6")
Height over tailfin: 3.5 m (11' 7¼")
Tailplane span: 2.88 m (9' 5½")
Width over mainwheels: 2.45 m (8' ½")
Wheelbase: 3.535 m (11' 7¼")
Main rotor tip ground clearance: 2.45 m (8' ½")
Fuselage ground clearance: 0.4 m (1' 3¼")
Passenger doors (each)
Height: 1.06 m (3' 5¾")
Width: 1.15 m (3' 9¼")
Height to sil: 0.65 m (2' 1½")
Baggage door (port, rear):
Height: 0.51 m (1' 8")
Width: 1.0 m (3' 3¼")
Cabin length: 2.10 m (6' 10¼")
Max width: 1.61 m (5' 3½")
Max height: 1.28 m (4' 2½")
Volume, incl flight deck: 5.1 m³ (180 ft³)
Baggage compartment: 0.95 m³ (33.6 ft³)
Main rotor disc: 95.03 m² (1,022.9 ft²)
Tail rotor disc: 3.14 m² (33.82 ft²)
Weights and loadings
Weight, empty: 1,570 kg (3,461 lb)
Max slung load: 1,000 kg (2,204 lb)
Max T-O weight: 2,850 kg (6,283 lb)
Max T-O weight, with slung load: 3,000 kg (6,613 lb)
Max disc loading: 30.0 kg/m² (6.14 lb/ft²)
Transmission loading at max T-O weight and power: 4.24 kg/kW (6.97 lb/shp)
Standard fuel, useable:
Fuel, incl auxiliary tanks:
Never exceed speed (Vne): 281 kph (152 knts; 174 mph)
Max cruising speed at S/L, clean: 285 kph (154 knts; 177 mph)
Max rate of climb at S/L: 588 m/min (1,930 ft/min)
Rate of climb at S/L, OEI:
Service ceiling: 5,974 m (19,680')
Service ceiling, OEI: 3,990 m (13,100')
Hovering ceiling IGE: 5,060 m (16,600')
Hovering ceiling OGE: 3,597 m (11,800')
Max range: 948 km (589 mi; 512 nm)
Max range, best height and speed, max optional (five cells) fuel: 964 km (599 mi; 521 nm)
Endurance: 5 h 4 min
Costs: AW 109E US$ 6.3 million (2012). Direct operating cost US$ 380/hr (2000).
Weapon systems (optional): Internal armament comprises, pintle-mounted 7.62 mm MG and 12.7 mm MG in doorway. Provision for carriage of four or eight TOW, TOW 1, TOW 2 or TOW 2A missiles on external lateral pylons, each of 300 kg (661 lb) max capacity, with roof mounted HeliTOW sight or APX M 334 or Helios gyrostabilized sights. Alternatively, pylons can accomodate seven or 12-tube pods for 2.75" or 81 mm rockets; rocket/ machinegun (RPM) pods each with three 70 mm rockets and a 12.7 mm MG with 200 rds; or machinegun pods with 12.7 mm (and 250 rds) or 7.62 mm gun.
AFP weapon systems:
Program: Revealed at 1995 Paris Air Show, by which time prototype has accumulated more than 60 hrs of flight testing. Engineering designation is A 109E. Based on a A 109K2 (Law enforcement) airframe with new A 129-derived lightweight, low maintenance titanium main rotor head connected to composites material grips via single elastomeric bearing on each blade; Pratt & Whitney Canada PW206c or Tubomecca Arrius 2K1 engines; new heavy duty high-clearance landing gear in revised position below fuselage; cabin as for A 109K2, retaining quick chancge facility from passenger to EMS operation. First production aircraft (I-PWER) completed late 1995; RAI IFR certification 31 May 1996; FAA IFR certification 26 August 1996. Aircraft with Rogerson IIDS (integrated instrument display system) cockpit (I-EAPW); first production displayed at 1997 Paris Air Show. First 120 or so Powers had P&W engines; Turbomecca variant phased in wth delivery of N7YL to Erie Lifestar in early September 2001. PZL-Swidnik of Poland contracted to build fuselages for A 109E between 1996 and 2006 as alternative production source. By 2001, production stood at some 45 per year. USCG MH-68A is equipped with night vision device (NVD) cockpit, FLIR, weather radar, encrypted radios, Spectrolab NightSun search light, starbooard rescue hoist, port doorway 7.62mm M240D machine gun and a Barrett M107 semi-automatic .50 cal sniper rifle with laser sight. Following trials aboard the USCG Gallatin (WHEC 721) in early 2001, the MH-68A has been cleared for deployment aboard all helicopter-capable cutters in the USCG fleet. Eight A 109E Power aircraft were used by the USCG Helicopter Interdiction Tactical Squadron Jacksonville (HITRON Jacksonville) as short range armed interdiction helicopters from 2000 until 2008 when they were replaced with MH-65C Dolphins. Philippine Dept of National Defense initialy ordered three A 109E on 20 December 2012 with a net price of Php 1.34 billion, under the Naval Helicopter Procurement Project, which will be delivered by 2014 with additional two units to follow. These units will be equipped with ASW gear and deployed aboard PN frigates for deployment in the disputed South China sea.
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Robinson Helicopter Company R22 Beta II
Type: Two-seat light helicopter
Similar aircraft: R44
Design Features: Simple, pod-and-boom light helicopter; horizontal stabiliser, starboard side only; vertical stabiliser above and below boom; offset to starboard; tail rotor mast. Horizontally mounted piston engine drives transmission through multiple V belts and sprag-type overrunning clutch; main and tail gearboxes use spiral bevel gears, maintenance free flexible couplings of proprietary manufacture used in both main and tail rotors drives. Two-blade semi-articulated main rotor, with tri-hinged undersling rotor head to reduce blade flexing, rotor vibration and control force feedback, and an elastic teeter hinge stop to prevent blade-boom contact when starting or stopping rotor in high winds; blade section NACA 63-015 (modified); two-blade tail rotor on port side; rotor brake standard.
Rotor system: All metal bonded blades with stainless steel spar and leading edge. Two-blade, tri-hinged main rotor, which eliminates the need for lag hinges, dampers, and hydraulic struts. Thick stainless steel leading edge on main rotor blades prevents dust and rain erosion. Two-blade, low-tip speed tail rotor.
Rotor drive: Precision-engineered RPM governor automatically controls engine RPM during all normal operations. Rotor brake allows the pilot to stop the rotor quickly, greatly reducing shutdown time and the risk of injury to ground personnel. Maintenance-free flexible couplings are used in place of universal joints or gear couplings in the main and tail drive systems. Teflon-lined, elastomeric, and sealed bearings eliminate most lubrication requirements.
Fuselage: Conventional semi-monocoque structure of pod and boom type, with wide, unobstructed views. Frame section of steel tube, light alloy skin. Large windows in each door allow clear sideward vision from both seats.
Tail unit: Light alloy tailboom
Landing gear: Welded steel tube and light alloy skid landing gear, with energy absorbing crosstubes.
Accommodation: Two seats side by side in enclosed cabin with inertia reel shoulder harness. Curved two-panel, tinted windscreen. Removable door, with tinted window, on each side. Baggage space beneath each seat. Cabin heated and ventilated. Optional, removable dual-control on passenger side. Both seats hinge up for access to concealed storage areas for carry-on bags, briefcases, supplies, and other belongings. A custom Robinson travel bag is standard equipment on new R-22s. Fresh air vents in the cabin nose and each door provide generous ventilation for pilot and passenger. The optional heater distributes heat during cold weather operations.
Powerplant: One 131 hp (97.68 kW, derated) Textron Lycoming O-360 Four-Cylinder piston engine at 2,652 rpm, mounted in the lower rear section of the main fuselage, with cooling fan. Light alloy main fuel tank in upper rear section of the fuselage on port side, useable capacity 72.67 liters (19.2 US gallons; 16.0 Imp gallons), optional auxilliary fuel tank capacity 39.75 liters (10.5 US gallons; 8.7 Imp gallons). Oil capacity 5.7 liters(1.5 US gallons; 1.25 Imp gallons). Transmission overhaul interval 2,220 or 12 years.
Systems: Electrical system, powered by 12V DC alternator includes navigation,panel and map lights, dual landing lights, anti collision light and battery. Automatic clutch engagement, simplifies start-up procedure and reduces the possibility of an overspeed.
Avionics and equipment: Primary controls are actuated by maintenance-free bellcranks and push-pull tubes, eliminating the need for control cables and pulleys. Pistol-grip cyclic controls incorporate two-position trigger switches for intercom and transmit. Grips also have buttons for convenient storing and switching of COMM frequencies. Carburetor heat assist, enhances safety and reduces pilot workload by automatically adding carb heat when the collective is lowered and reducing carb heat when the collective is raised. Robinson's patented cyclic design eliminates uncomfortable stick between knees and eases cabin entry and exit. High-quality voice-activated intercom eliminates the need to use intercom switches during doors-on flights. Floor and hand intercom switches are included for doors-off operations.
Comms: Bendix/King KY 197A VHF com radio; KT 76C transponder with Mode C altitude encoder; and NAT AA 80 intercom system with floor and hand switches. Options includes Garmin 430 GPS/COM/VOR/LOC/GS with 106A CDI replacing KY 197A; Pointer 3000-10 or 4000-10 (Canadian spec) ELT; NAT AA 12 intercom controller, and David Clark H10-13H or Bose series X headsets.
Flight: Garmin 150XL, 250XL and 400 GPS optional.
Instrumentation: Standard equipment includes ASI; VSI; rotor/engine dual tachometer, sensitive altimeter; magnetic compass; digital OAT gauge; CHT gauge; oil temperature and pressure gauges; ammeter; hours meter; manifold pressure gauge; quartz clock; and warning lights for low voltage, low oil pressure, low fuel, low rotor rpm and horm, main gearbox temperature, main and tail rotor gearbox chips, starter engaged, and rotor brake engaged.
Optional instruments includes BFG (AIM) 205-1ADG; turn co-ordinator, PAI-700 vertical compass (replaces standard compass); United Instruments IVSI (replaces standard VSI); LC-2 digital clock (replaces standard clock); and Millibar altimeter.
Equipment: Standard equipment includes rotor brakel tinted windscreen and windows; belly hardpoint; dual landing lights; navigation, panel and map lights; anti collision light; ground handling wheels; rotor blade tiedowns; and windscreen cover. Optional equipment includes three cylinder engine priming system; RHC oil filter; cabin heater/defogger; metallic base or trim exterior colors, and leather seats.
Main rotor diameter: 7.67 m (25.17')
Tail rotor diameter: 1.07 m (3' 6")
Main rotor blade chord: 0.18 m (7 ¼")
Tail rotor blade chord:
Distance between rotor centers: 4.39 m (14' 5")
Length including main and tail rotors: 8.76 m (28.74')
Length excluding main and tail rotors: 6.58 m (21.58')
Length of fuselage pod: 6.30 m (20' 8")
Height to top of main rotor head: 2.72 m (8.92')
Height to top of cabin: 1.75 m (5' 9")
Width over skids: 1.93 m (6.33')
Cabin max width: 1.12 m (3' 8")
Main rotor blades (each): 0.70 m² (7.55 ft²)
Tail rotor blades (each): 0.04 m² (0.40 ft²)
Main rotor disc: 46.21 m² (497.4 ft²)
Tail rotor disc: 0.89 m² (9.63 ft²)
Fin: 0.21 m² (2.28 ft²)
Stabilser: 0.14 m² (1.53 ft²)
Weights and loadings
Basic empty weight: 387.82 kg (855 lb)
Standard fuel, useable: 52.16 kg (115 lb)
Fuel, incl auxiliary tanks:
Max T-O and landing weight: 621.42 kg (1,370 lb)
Max power loading at T-O: 6.37 kg/kW (10.46 lb/hp)
Never exceed speed (Vne) without sling load: 190 kph (102 knts; 118 mph)
Never exceed speed (Vne) with sling load: 139 kph (75 knts; 86 mph)
Cruising speed at 70% power at FL80: 177 kph (96 knts; 110 mph)
Econ cruising speed: 153 kph (82 knts; 95 mph)
Best range speed at S/L: 204 kph (110 knts; 127 mph)
Max rate of climb at S/L: 304.8 m/min (1,000 ft/min)
Rate of climb at 3,048 m (10,000'): 182.88 m/min (600 ft/min)
Vertical rate of climb at S/L, T-O power:
Max operating altitude: 4,267.2 m (14,000')
Hovering ceiling IGE at 1,370 GW: 2,865.12 m (9,400')
Hovering ceiling OGE, T-O power:
Range with standard fuel no reserves with max payload: 321.87 km (173.79 nm; 200 mi)
Range with max fuel: 482 km (260 nm; 300 mi)
Endurance at 65% power, auxilliary fuel, no reserves: 3 hr 20 min
Weapon systems: None
AFP weapon systems: PN Air Group units are currently not equipped with any type of weapon systems.
Program: Commissioned on 09 October 2007 to the Naval Air Group as a helicopter trainer.
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